Appendix A

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The following passages have been ‘tagged’ based on the following categories:

  • GARMENTS, JEWELRY, ARTIFACTS (such as common tools, tableware, containers, belts, pouches, &c.), LIGHTING, FURNITURE, Warfare-related (WEAPONS, ARMOR, TACTICS, other MILITARY matters—troop strength &c.), FOOD (cooked) & DRINK, ARCHITECTURE, ECONOMICS &LIVELIHOODS (including LIVESTOCK), FLORA (including herbs & foraged foods), FAUNA (including non-working animals), MATERIALS (fabrics, metals, & wood—including TREES), CULTURAL/SOCIAL, TRAVEL & TRANSPORTATION, PHYSICAL descriptions

The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A: Annals of the Kings and Rulers, I The Numenorean Kings – iii ERIADOR, ARNOR, AND THE HEIRS OF ISILDUR:

“The Lossoth of Forchel…these are a strange, unfriendly people, remnant of the Forodwaith, Men of far-off days, accustomed to the bitter colds of the realm of Morgoth. Indeed those colds linger still in that region, though they lie hardly more than a hundred leagues north of the Shire. The Lossoth house in the snow, and it is said that they can run on the ice with bones on their feet, and have carts without wheels. They live mostly, inaccessible to their enemies, on the great Cape of Forochel that shuts off to the north-west the immense bay of that name; but they often camp on the south shores of the bay at the feet of the Mountains.’ …But partly out of pity for the gaunt king and his men, and partly out of fear of their weapons, they gave them a little food and built for them snow-huts. There Arvedui was forced to wait, hoping for help from the south; for his horses had perished. 'When the Snowmen saw the ship they were amazed and afraid, for they had seen no such ship on the sea within their memories; but they had become now more friendly, and they drew the king and those that survived of his company out over the ice in their sliding carts, as for as they dared. In this way a boat from the ship was able to reach them.” ARCHITECTURE; TRAVEL; CULTURAL; FOROCHEL; MEN; 3A Should we picture the Lossoth as being more Inuit (snow-huts reminiscent of igloos?) or indigenous northern European—Sami Finns &c.?

“3 The scepter was the chief mark of royalty in Numenor, the King tells us; and that was also so in Arnor, whose kings wore no crown, but bore a single white gen, the Elendilmir, Star of Elendil, bound on their brows with a silver fillet (I, 165; III, 122, 138, 264, 265). In speaking of a crown (I, 192, 278), Bilbo no doubt referred to Gondor; he seems to have become well acquainted with matters concerning Aragorn’s line. The scepter of Numenor is said to have perished with Ar-Pharazon. That of Annuminas was the silver rod of the Lords of Andunie, and is now perhaps the most ancient work of Men’s hands preserved in Middle-earth. It was already more than five thousand years old when Elrond surrendered it to Aragorn (III, 271). The crown of Gondor was derived from the form of a Numenorean war-helm. In the beginning I was indeed a plain helm; and it is said to have been the one that Isildur wore in the Battle of Dagorlad (for the helm of Anarion was crushed by the stone-cast from Barad-dur that slew him). But in the days of Atanatar Alcarin this was replaced by the jeweled helm that was used in the crowning of Aragorn.” ARMOR; JEWELRY; GONDOR; ARNOR; MEN; 2A; 3A

The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A: Annals of the Kings and Rulers, I The Numenorean Kings – v HERE FOLLOWS A PART OF THE TALE OF ARAGORN AND ARWEN:

'The next day at the hour of sunset Aragorn walked alone in we woods, and his heart was high within him; and he sang, for he was full of hope and the world was fair. And suddenly even as he sang he saw a maiden walking on a greensward among the white stems of the birches; and he halted amazed, thinking that he had strayed into a dream, or else that he had received the gift of the Elf-minstrels, who can make the things of which they sing appear before the eyes of those that listen.” “'"Lady Undómiel," said Aragorn, "the hour is indeed hard, yet it was made even in that day when we met under the white birches in the garden of Elrond where none now walk.” TREES; MATERIALS; RIVENDELL; 3A

The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A: Annals of the Kings and Rulers, III – Durin’s Folk “Coming late and fresh to the field the mailed warriors of Náin, Grór's son, drove through the Orcs to the very threshold of Moria, crying 'Azog! Azog! ' as they hewed down with their mattocks all who stood in their way…. (391) Thereupon Azog came forth, and he was a great Orc with a huge iron-clad head, and yet agile and strong. With him came many like him, the fighters of his guard… …Náin stumbled forward. Then Azog with a swift swing hewed his neck. His mail-collar withstood the edge, but so heavy was the blow that Náin's neck was broken and he fell. …Up the steps after him leaped a Dwarf with a red axe. It was Dáin Ironfoot, Náin's son. Right before the doors he caught Azog, and there he slew him, and hewed off his head.” ARMOR; WEAPONS; DWARVES; ORCS; 3A

“So Thráin and Thorin with what remained of their following (among whom were Balin and Glóin) returned to Dunland, and soon afterwards they removed and wandered in Eriador, until at last they made a home in exile in the east of the Ered Luin beyond the Lune. Of iron were most of the things that they forged in those days, but they prospered after a fashion, and their numbers slowly increased.” ECON; MATERIALS; ERIADOR; DWARVES; 3A

“Such dealings with their dead seemed grievous to the dwarves, for it was against their use; but to make such tombs as they were accustomed to build (since they will lay their dead only in stone not in earth) would have taken many years. To fire therefore they turned, rather than leave their kin to beast or bird or carrion-orc. But those who fell in Azanulbizar were honoured in memory, and to this day a Dwarf will say proudly of one of his sires: ‘he was a burned Dwarf’, and that is enough.” CULTURAL; DWARVES; 3A